Madeley Printer Willington St Strand.

THE

LONDON

JOURNAL OF BOTANY;

CONTAINING

FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

SUCH PLANTS AS RECOMMEND THEMSELVES BY THEIR NOVELTY, RARITY, HISTORY, OR USES ;

TOGETHER WITH

BOTANICAL NOTICES AND INFORMATION,

AKD

OCCASIONAL MEMOIRS OF EMINENT BOTANISTS;

SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L, F.R.A, & LS. VICE-PRESIDENT OF JEAN SOCIETY; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL IRISH

ACADEMY; MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY CÆSAR-LEOPOLD. NATURE CURIOSORUM ;

OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY CÆSAR. NATURÆ CURIOSORUM OF MOSCOW; OF THE ROYAL

ACADEMIES OF SWEDEN, PRUSSIA, LUND; OF THE ACADEMIES OF PHILADELPHIA, NEW YORE, BOSTON; OF THE NAT. HIST. SOCIETY OF MONTREAL, &c. &c

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VOL. V. O

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LIST OF WORKS BY ROBERT WIGHT, MD. FLS.

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ene

ILLUSTRATIONS OF INDIAN BOTANY;

Or, Figures Illustrative of each of the Natural Orders of Indian Plants described in the Author's Prodromus Flore Peninsule Indie Orientalis; but not confined to them.

By Dr. ROBERT WIGHT, F.L.S.

SURGEON TO THE MADRAS ESTABLISHMENT.

Vol. I. published in 13 Parts, containing 95 col. plates, Madras, 1838-40. £4 17s. 6d. Vol. II. Part I. containing 39 coloured plates, Madras, 1841. £1 5s.

Odd Parts can be obtained to complete sets.

ICONES PLANTARUM INDIA ORIENTALIS;

OR FIGURES OF INDIAN PLANTS. By Dr. ROBERT WIGHT, F.L.S.

SURGEON TO THE MADRAS ESTABLISHMENT.

Vol. I. 4to. consisting of 16 Parts, containing together 318 plates, Madras 1838—40. £4. _ Vol. II. consisting of 4 Parts, containing together 318 plates, Madras, 1840—42. £5 5s. Vol. III. Parts I—III. with 409 plates, Madras, 1843—46. £4 5s. a

Odd Parts can be obtained to complete sets.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BOTANY OF INDIA. By Dr. ROBERT WIGHT, F.LS. SURGEON TO THE MADRAS ESTABLISHMENT.

8vo. London, 1834. 7s. 6d.

SPICILEGIUM NEILGHERRENSE;

Or a Selection of Neilgherry Plants, Drawn and Coloured from Nature, with brief Des- : criptions of each; some General Remarks on the Geography and Affinities of Natural Families of Plants, and Occasional Notices of their Economical Properties and Uses,

By Dr. ROBERT WIGHT, F.L.S.

SURGEON TO THE MADRAS ESTABLISHMENT.

4to. with 50 coloured plates, Madras, 1846. £1 10s.

| PRODROMUS FLORA PENINSULA INDIÆ ORIET „Containing Abridged Descriptions of the Plants found in the Peninsula : | ie aiaa according to the Natural System.

By Das, ROBERT. WIGHT, FLS, axo WALKER-ARNOT

NOW READY, AND TO BE CONTINUED QUARTERLY.

Vols, I, IT. & IH. New Series, (or Vols. V. VI. & VII. of the Entire Work), containing each 100 Plates and T'ext, bound in cloth, London, 1842—44, Price £1. 8s. each vol. and Vol. IV. Part 1, with 50 Plates, London, 1845. 14s.

OF THE

ICONES PLANTARUM;

OR, FIGURES WITH BRIEF DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERS AND REMARKS OF NEW AND RARE PLANTS,

SELECTED FROM THE AUTHOR'S HERBARIUM,

BY SIR WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, K.C.H. L.L.D. F.R.A. & L.S. &c.

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE LINNÆAN SOCIETY, AND DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAI. GARDENS OF KEW.

Now ready, Five sheets of Letter-press, with a Coloured Plate and a Woodcut. Price 4s.

NOTES ON THE BOTANY

oF THE ANTARCTIC VOYAGE, CONDUCTED BY CAPTAIN JAMES CLARK ROSS, RN. FRS. &c. &c. &c. IN HER MAJESTY'S DISCOVERY SHIPS EREBUS AND TERROR; |. WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE TUSSAC GRASS | OF THE FALKLAND ISLANDS, ; i ay te SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H. L.L.D. F.R.A. & L.S.

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE LINNÆAN SOCIETY, AND DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GARDENS OF KEW.

In 1 vol. 8vo. with 75 Plates and Descriptions, in boards. London, 1844, £1 1s.

SERTUM PLANTARUM; : OR, ___ DRAWINGS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF RARE AND UNDESCRIBED PLANTS S FROM THE AUTHOR's HERBARIUM. BY H. B. FIELDING, F.L.S. & R.G.S. ASSISTED BY

GEORGE GARDNER, ELS.

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, CEYLON,

THE

LONDON JOURNAL OF BOTANY.

EDITED BY

SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., L.L.D., F.R.S., & L.S.

Decapes or Fuwa:; by the Rev. M. J. BERKELEY, M.A. F.L.S.

( Continued from Page 315, Vol. IV.) Decane XI.

_ 101. Ag. epispheria, n. sp.; pileo resupinato margine - tantum libero, subflabelliformi pallido subtomentoso ; lamellis cervinis albo-marginatis. Drège, n. 9413, a.

On decayed Spherie. South Africa; Drège.

Pileus subflabelliform, $ an inch long, attached, with the exception of the arched margin, by fine downy threads and a few fibres to the matrix, pale subtomentose,

especially at the extreme edge. Stem none. Gills mode-

rately broad, fawn-coloured with a pale edge.

This Agaric belongs to the same section with Ag. varia- Ens - x bilis, but appears perfectly distinct from every described

species. I have not been able to find perfect spores. 102. Marasmius hepaticus, n. sp.; cæspitosus ; pileo hemis-

pherico glaberrimo stipiteque supra subæquali deorsum : ; incrassato glabro fibroso cartilagineo hepaticis ; lamellis E

_subliberis distantibus postice attenuatis fulvis. Amongst dead à a Tun Diemen’ s * Land, R. A pos a vue =

VOL. vs p rs =

2 DECADES OF FUNGI.

Cæspitose, pileus hemispherical, $ of an inch broad, sub- carnose, quite smooth, liver-brown. Stem 14 inch high, 1i line thick, of the same colour as the pileus, smooth, cartilaginous, composed of stringy fibres attached, at the slightly inerassated base, to leaves, &c., by the reddish downy mycelium. Gills fawn-coloured, nearly free, rather narrow, attenuated behind; margin thin and denticulate; interstices smooth.

A beautiful species, somewhat resembling M. erythropus, but quite distinct from every described species.

103. M. sarmentosus,m. sp.; pileo hemispherico subspa- . diceo primum umbonato dense sericeo, margine involuto demum expanso; stipite villo depresso vestito, demum glabrescente eximie sarmentoso.

On dead leaves, especially on their nerves, little sticks, &c., from thence spreading and attaching itself to every plant in its neighbourhood. Jamaica, Mr. Purdie.

At first appearing under the form of a little silky tubercle, varying in size according to the nature of the matrix; this soon acquires a stem, which is rapidly elongated, occasionally to the extent of several inches, and remains for some time perfectly simple; more frequently, however, it becomes attached to some neighbouring object by a little patch of white or reddish down, so that a mass of the plant, when gathered, presents quite a Flora of mosses, ferns, and dead or living phænogams. It soon throws off, at right angles, short lateral branches, which are sometimes opposite, each terminated by a little pileus, in general, smaller than the primary pileus. :

Pileus 3-1 line broad, at first subglobose from the margin, being strongly involute, tipped with a conical umbo, densely silky, bright-brown or tawny, at length expanded but still retaining some traces of the umbo. Stem thickest at the base, setiform varying greatly in length, sometimes eight - or nine inches long, without branching, sometimes on the contrary, branched when scarcely exceeding an inch, clothed . at first with pale more or less closely pM and generally 2

DECADES OF FUNGI. 3

deflexed hairs, at length quite smooth and striated. The branches spring from the main stem, exactly in the same manneras the original stems from the nerves of the leaf. As allthe pilei were more or less injured by insects, I am unfortunately unable to describe the gills.

This curious species is allied to Marasmius dispar and M. chordalis. The simple individuals resemble somewhat Ag. stipitarius. I suspect that, in the present instance, the greater or less branching of the stem is normal; but, as this is not certain, 1 have omitted it in the specific character. It must be a very beautiful and striking object when growing.

104. Thelephora subhepatica, n. sp.; tota resupinata orbi- cularis hepatica margine membranaceo-byssoideo subfim- briato pallidiore ; hymenio glabro hic illic minutissime reti- culato.

On dead bark. Casapi, Peru.

Forming orbicular entirely resupinate patches, about 14 inch broad, at length confluent, liver-coloured, extremely thin and inseparable from the matrix; margin paler, sub- fimbriate, byssoid, but membranaceous. Hymenium smooth, not setulose or cracked, but here and there very minutely reticulate with raised lines.

The general appearance is not altogether dissimilar from . Hydnum fimbriatum, but it is less fimbriated and is not, like that, separable from the matrix.

105. Corticium Drègeanum, n. sp.; effusum, resupinatum papyraceum e matrice separabile ochroleucum supra subtiliter tomentosum ; hymenio rimosiusculo glabro papillato. Drège, n. 9451; c.

South Africa, on bark.

Forming effused ochroleucous somewhat elongated patches,

3-4 inches long, 13 inch broad, separable from the matrix,

above minutely tomentose; hymenium glabrous, minutely mealy, rather rugged papillose, slightly cracked. T 0 mln somewhat- Corti: molle but easily distin- -

AS a

4 DECADES OF FUNGI.

guished by its thicker flexible substance, which is separable from the matrix.

106. Hexagonia similis, n. sp.; pileo sublaterali suberoso- coriaceo tenui explanato e pallido ligneo-fulvente, zonis ` postice crebris antice paucioribus rugosis, lineis prominen- ^ tibus hic illic notatis, glabro sericeo-nitido ; poris parvis pallidis intus primum pruinosis; margine hymenii sterili.

Australia. Gathered by one of the officers of the Beagle.

Pileus sessile, or furnished with a very short orbicular « stem, 3 inches long, 4j inches broad, suberoso-coriaceous, i slightly flexible, thin, especially towards the margin, re- ` peatedly and sometimes closely zoned, rather rugged and «

marked with a few raised lines which, however, do not form 1

bristles, of a brownish wood-colour, smooth with a satiny | lustre ; the extreme edge only minutely velvety, but soon - becoming smooth. A

Hymenium paler than the pileus, rather uneven; pores subhexagonal, small, 1-50th of an inch in diameter, pale at | first, pruinose within. Substance of the same colour as the . pileus. t This species is allied to H. polygramma, Mont.; though 1 the pileus is thicker and the pores much smaller. In | H. polygramma there appear to be no finer zones; but in the i present species, in an early stage of growth, the pileus is 1 very closely zonato-striate. Its relation to other species is | more distant. Itis possible that in every species of Hexa- 4 gonia there are distinct varieties, exhibiting pores of various | sizes, of which I fancy that I have some evidence. In this | case, the species will require reduction, and this will be | 1 registered under H. polygramma, for there will be no other | point of much consequence, except that of the barren margin of the hymenium and the rather convex than concave pileus. - The fine zones behind are at length concealed in the course of growth, by an anamorphosis of the external cellular tissue.

107. Polyporus brunneo-leucus, n. sp.; indui posi | 3

de

DECADES OF FUNGI. : 5

effusus ; pileis dimidiatis subzonatis rugosis tenuibus coriaceis subflaccidis e ferrugineo fusco-nigricantibus velutinis hic illic glabrescentibus, hymenio pallido poris parvis angulatis subintegris vel denticulatis ; dissepimentis tenuibus.

Van Diemen's Land, R. Gunn, Esq.

Pilei imbricated, decurrent behind, dimidiate, 14 inch broad, 3-i of an inch long, thin, coriaceous, but flexible and very light, rugged behind, and irregularly zoned or sulcate, atlength nearly smooth, in front more even, clothed with slightly tawny velvety down, which however, in old speci- mens, entirely vanishes. Extreme margin thin and dark; substance pale, soft.

Hymenium pallid, nearly white, but becoming rather darker with age; pores small, 1-60th of an inch in diameter, angular, nearly entire or slightly toothed; dissepiments thin.

A very pretty and singular species, resembling somewhat young specimens of Pol. cuticularis (Bull.), but not becoming rigid like that, and a far smaller plant, not to mention the different appearance caused by the zones, and the soft velvety, not at all hispid covering. "The pileus consists of three distinct strata; the first spongy, beneath which is a thin dark cuticle covering the pallid substance from which the pores immediately spring. "The colours are as nearly as possible the same. There is an analogy between this species and Stereum bicolor. Sometimes the apex is elongated and the little pileus becomes triquetrous, as in that species.

108. Peziza fusispora, n. sp.; gregaria subconferta sessilis cupulis hemisphericis planis vel concaviusculis luteis tomen- tosis ; sporidiis utrinque leviter attenuatis.

On earth, mixed with particles of charcoal. Van Diemen's Land, R. Gunn, Esq. :

Gregarious, here and there crowded, 1-2 lines broad, orange-yellow, hemispherical, slightly concave, or quite flat, with a delicate membranous edge, obscurely tomentose, fixed to the soil by a little down. Asci cylindrical, obtuse. Burm mes MM Poss at ner nes and con-

6 DECADES OF FUNGI.

taining two globose nuclei, which themselves also apparently contain a nucleus.

Allied to P. subhirsuta, but differing essentially in the form of the sporidia. In that species, as published by Desmaziéres, n. 462, I find them oblong-elliptic, with the apices quite obtuse. ‘I know of no instance of fusiform spores in Peziza, except in a variety of P. leucoloma, figured by Corda, Fasc. 2, fig. 135.

109. Leotia elegans, n. sp.; stipite elongato gracili sursum subattenuato ; capitulo brevi clavæformi stipite vix cras- siore,

United States, North America, Mr. Greene.

Stem 24 inches high, scarcely half a line thick, smooth, slightly attenuated upwards. Head 1-2 lines long, a little thicker than the stem, clavæform, sometimes bifid. The whole plant when dry is of dull orange-brown. This is a very distinct species, allied to Leotia uliginosa, with which | it cannot be confounded. If I have seen correctly, the asci- are lanceolate, and the sporidia oblong. It is not described by Schweinitz. 1 . 110. Sphæria (Lignosæ) enteroxantha, n. sp. inæqualis 4 suborbicularis rugosa nigra intus pulverulenta aurea; peri-

theciis oblongis; ostiolis prominulis punctiformibus.

' On dead sticks. British Guiana, Sir R. Schomburgk. - B

About 1 line broad, irregular, subglobose, bursting through the bark, rugged; sometimes confluent, black; perithecia | oblong with a short neck, more or less pondered with yellow; stroma golden yellow in the centre, as is also the surface of the wood beneath the bark. Ostiola prominent, punctiform. Asci narrow, clavate. Sporidia very minute, curved.

Closely allied to s. flavovirens, but distinguished by the golden yellow of the centre of the stroma. The sporidia agree in form,

(To be continued.)

aT

BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

Unio Itineraria. Abyssinian Plants.

The fourth section of the Abyssinian Plants,” collected by Schimper, amounting to 400 species, have recently been distributed. Like the former sets, this contains very good specimens ; but the number of species in the present section which have been previously sent is so great as to take away materially from the value of this portion, and we should fear will not give satisfaction to the subscribers. It would appear that Mr. Schimper being fixed in a certain spot, has no longer the range of country to visit which is likely to afford much novelty to the Botanist. The numbering upon the tickets now amounts to 2000, or nearly so; but that we apprehend will give a very incorrect idea of the amount of species that the subscribers have received. The Unio Iti- neraria has done great good to Botany, and we have done every thing in our power, both by individual subscription and by inducing others to aid in so praiseworthy an object ; and we are aware of the great difficulties it has had to encounter, and the losses it has sustained by accidents and otherwise ; but we should be sorry to see its usefulness lessened by disappointing the just expectations of the subscribers.

The following is a translation of the Prospectus, which has accompanied our own set of the fourth section of the Abyssinian Plants. ;

* In remitting to our subscribers the third portion of the Abyssinian Plants, we add a few necessary remarks.

* Before all, we have to excuse ourselves for the delay that has taken place in sending out this portion of the collection. It has been occasioned by the long illness, ter- - minated by the unexpected death of the friend, who for many years has assisted us in the direction, and who specially undertook the business. of distribution. The distribution,

thus v our vill, eos not be taken up

8 BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

again and carried through so quickly as we could have . wished.

* If in this third collection there be found, besides many new and interesting plants, a considerable number also of species which were already contained in the former portions, we admit that we should have preferred enriching the herbaria of our subscribers and science generally, with new species only ; but we could only transmit what our Abys- sinian friend himself had sent us, and were unwilling to omit anything, since in regard to the rare species at least, a second specimen cannot be unacceptable.

“The price per century, has been fixed as low as that of the first portion, that is to say 15 florins, and we could have lowered it still more, as we had expressed our intention in sending the second portion, but that Mr. Schimper had | earnestly begged us to remit to him whatever funds we - might have in hand or could collect, although he has for the moment stopped his remittances of plants, and placed himself in a situation independant of the Unio. He has, indeed, for the last two years, married in Abyssinia, and procured the King of that country, Ubie, to appoint him ruler of a district. 'The seat of his government, or of the capital of the district he holds under Ubie, is Antitscho. This political pesition of his has prevented him during the latter years from doing anything for the Unio; for the third collection we now send out, is the result of his herborisations ofthe year 1842. But he added, to the request contained in his last letter that we should send him manufactured goods, implements, &c., a promise to send hereafter to the directors of the Unio, objects of natural history and especially dried plants; and we therefore thought we were acting according to the wishes of our subscribers, or at least of the majority of them, in complying with his request, so far as the funds in hand or the sale of the remaining collections admitted.

“It is a gratifying circumstance, that this intrepid traveller should have earned for himself, as a reward for his efforts and contributions, an independent and honour- able position, by which he has proposed to himself, as the

BOTANICAL INFORMATION, 9

object of his exertions, the diffusing gradually the advantages of European civilisation amongst the people of Abyssinia ; for to this end, as he distinctly writes, are his endeavours directed, and it is this noble design which has enabled him to give up his own fatherland. Should he succeed in effect- ing anything permanent, then the Unio Itineraria may congratulate itseif on having contributed its mite, or at least on having given the opportunity for it, by sending Mr. W. Schimper to Abyssinia.

* [t is less satisfactory, that Dr. Welwitsch at Lisbon, appears to have forgotten his engagements with the Unio, and has not fulfilled his often repeated promises of continuing his remittances of Portuguese plants. We reserve to our- selves the hope of compensating those subscribers who have thus felt disappointments, proportionate to the amount of their contributions, by a future remittance of Abyssinian plants, or by some other means as far as we are able, if the lately repeated promises of Dr. Welwitsch remain unful- filled.

* Pror. HocusTETTER. * Dn. STEUDEL. * * Esslingen, August 15, 1845."

Heldreich’s Oriental Plants.

South European and Oriental Botany is under immense obligations to M. Boissier, of Geneva, for the services rendered by his admirable descriptions of new and rare species, no less than by the encouragement he has afforded to collectors, and by the determination of the species amassed through their means. M. Theodore Heldreich is one of the ablest of these collectors, and the distribution of his collections has given the greatest satisfaction to all the subscribers. Those of Greece, formed in the autumn of 1843 and spring of 1844, especially those from the mountain chains of - Malévo and of the Taygetes, have been mentioned in the : early part of our last volume, p. 41, and those yet t be

expected from him are intimated in the. bu ee hich im= à

10 BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

mediately follows upon that one. We have now the plea- sure of being able to state, that highly favourable intelligence has recently been received from M. Heldrecih. He had just returned to Korieh, after having explored the central Taurus, where he had made very extensive collections, from 700 to 800 species. In this collection, there is a remarkable predominance of Scrophularinee (30 species of Verbascum), of Caryophyllee (viz: 18 Dianthus, 24 Silene), of Labiate, of Leguminose. The collections cannot be dispatched to . Geneva till the ensuing spring, nor distributed till the summer, on account of the absence of M. Boissier. The centuries ; which will exceed the amount of subscription (as | stated, l. c. p. 41) of each subscriber, will be reckoned to - him at 30 francs of France; this slight increase being neces- | sary to meet the heavy expenses of the journey, and the - same price wil be put on the collections of the future | journies of M. Heldreich. The journey in view for the next .

year, will probably be the Oriental Taurus and Cappa- docia.

Kotschy's Plants of South Persia.

We re-set the type in order to give to our readers infor- - mation of the distribution of a most valuable collection of the Plants of South Persia, examined and named by M. Boissier under the direction of Dr. Hohenharker, of Esslingen, near Stuttgart, to whom subscribers’ names may | be sent. The set amounts to 820 species, the price is very |

moderate, the number of new species very considerable; and . the whole in beaujiful condition.

Mr. Spruce's Pyrenean Plants.

Mr. Spruce's object in visiting the Pyrenées has been already detailed at p. 197 of our last volume. We are now able to state that he has been very successful in his re- searches in that country, having collected most of the best

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. n

fiowering plants of the Pyrenées, and an immense harvest of Cryptogamæ. He has made three short excursions into Spain, (two into Arragon, one into Catalonia), and some inte- resting ones-with M. Dufour in the Grandes Landes, and has explored the Pyrenæn range from the Vallée d’Aspe to the Maladetta; and he proposed (his letter was dated Bagnères de Bigorre, October 29,) continuing to herborize in the mountains, till prevented by the snow. He will probably return to England, to publish his collections, about the end of February of the present year, when it may be expected they will be at once prepared for distribution.

Mr. Fortunes Chinese Plants.

We can now announce that Mr. Heward, of Young Street, Kensington, has commenced the distribution of Mr. For- tune's Specimens of Plants from China.

EJ

Notice of the Sale of the Herbarium of Dr. Graham, late Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh.

It is well known that Dr. Graham, while Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh, a post which he honourably filled for a period of twenty-five years, amassed a very extensive herbarium, of which a great part was obtained by purchase, at considerable expense, and the rest consisted of presents from distinguished travellers and scientific friends. We know it to be a collection of very considerable extent and in excellent condition, and that itis the intention of the family to dispose of it by public sale in the spring or early summer of next year in Edinburgh ; previous to which period, catalogues, indicating the nature of the lots, the place and time of sale, &c., will be circulated both -

in this country and upon the continent. A most complete

Hortus Siccus of British Plants, named on the best authori- =. ties, constitutes a very small portion of this collection ; which is eminently rich i in East Indian A the ee of Lady

12 BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

Dalhousie, Dr. Wallich, Dr. Wight, Colonel and Mrs. Walker, &c. &c., and it contains full sets of most ofthe plants that have been offered for sale by the Unio Itineraria and by various collectors, such as Gardner, the two Drummonds, Hartweg, Cuming, Mathews, Bridges, Tweedie, &c.

We shall not fail to give further notice in the pages of this Journal,as soon as the nature of the herbarium has been fully investigated, and a catalogue of the contents prepared.

Lindheimer’s Plants of Texas.

In the third volume of the present Journal, p. 140, is announced Mr. Lindheimer’s intention of devoting some time to the collecting of plants for sale, in Texas. The first series has been distributed, and we can confidently say that finer and better prepared, or better selected specimens, have seldom come under the notice of Botanists, and Mr. Lind- heimer has, as he pledged himself he would do, exéluded from them the common plants of the South-western States. The species are all labelled and numbered, and a list of names has been already published by Dr. Asa Gray, and copies of this Catalogue have reached this country.

One objeet of the. present notice, is to give the oppor- tunity for saying that, together with the sets ordered by ourselves and friends, there have come two which are undisposed of, and which can be had by applying to the Editor of this Journal at the price mentioned above, (Vol. ITI. p. 140) with the addition of the share of freight. One of the two contains 186 species, the other 181 species.

British Desmidiee. With Coloured Figures of the Species. By J. Ralfs, M.R.C.S.

In this important work, the author proposes to describe and illustrate all the British Desmidiee, and as correct figures À

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 13

will be absolutely essential to make the descriptions of such minute objects intelligible, he will spare neither care nor expense in rendering the plates, which will be executed under his own eye, as accurate as possible.

The engravings will be on copper, since experience has proved that the delicate markings of the Desmidieæ cannot be sufficiently displayed by lithography.

Upwards of one hundred species will be introduced, many of them either altogether new, or now first noticed as British.

The conjugated state of the Desmidiee is interesting, some- times from its resemblance to the same state in the Conju- gate, sometimes from the similarity of the spores to fossil bodies found in flint, and considered by Ehrenberg and other - naturalists as a species of Xanthidium. On these accounts, and also because few instances have been hitherto recorded, it is intended to give not only full details of the process, but as far as practicable, to show the different stages, by figures. Examples will be taken from one or more species in each of the following genera ; Gleoprium, Didymoprium, Micrasterias, Euastrum, Cosmarium, Xanthidium, Staurastrum, Tetmemo- rus and Closterium.

As their animal nature has been maintained by many able writers, this question will be examined, and sufficient reasons produced for considering the Desmidieæ to belong to the vegetable kingdom. Their modes of growth and other facts which may illustrate their oeconomy, will receive particular attention.

That nothing may be wanting to the utility of this mono- graph, the introduction will contain ample directions for finding and gathering these minute plants, and the different methods of mounting them for the microscope.

Names of Subscribers, to whom the price will be one

guinea, received by the Author, Penzance, Cornwall. ^. er

14 BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

ZEYHER AND BuRKE; South African Collections of Plants.

(Mr. Burke’s Journal, continued from Vol. IV. p. 643.)

On the 9th of Nov. I heard that the Deborah," arrived - in Algoa Bay, has our goods on board, and, being satisfied on this point, and finding that my people behave so ill in. the village that they are threatened with imprisonment, I determined on quitting Uitenhage and going to Saut Fonteyn, nine miles off, whither the paper, &c. can be sent to me from Algoa Bay. It was only by promising them some brandy that I could induce the men to come, and one Hot- tentot, whom I had dispatched to fetch the oxen, staid away all night, obliging me to send another to look for bim next. day. Atlast we started, with three waggons and thirty-six oxen in good condition, and getting rid of the women with less trouble than I anticipated, we went to Saut Fonteyn. On the 11th I visited the source of the stream which sup- plies Uitenhage, and found the ground where the water rises covered for a considerable space with Cliffortia elegans. On the hills around, Helichrysum nudifolium, Lissochilus speciosus and Jasminum Capense were common. We had not been long at Saut Fonteyn, when two Hottentot women arrived, who apparently persuaded William Kafir and another man to apply for permission to spend a day at Uitenhage, where I heard they were soon imprisoned, and only released to return directly to me, which they did in great ill-humour. We saw in this neighbourhood some duikers and grais boks, and shot several birds. The Nymphea scutifolia was beautifully in flower in the river. The weather became very fine and warm, the thermometer often indicating 90° in the shade. One - night a lion crossed the path but a short distance from the |

Punyer having arrived from Algoa Bay without the paper, | and only bringing two cases of articles of very little conse-

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 15

quence, I decided on losing no more time and starting im- mediately for the interior. Months have already been wasted in waiting for my goods. I therefore gave orders for departure from Saut Fonteyn on the 17th Nov., and crossing the Sundays River, we halted for the night at Commando Kraal, where we killed a grais bok and a bush bok. Plum- bago Capensis was in full bloom. For four days we bad much stormy weather. At a small stream called Mill River, which we crossed on the 22nd, the hills were quite pink with a species of Watsonia in full flower. Another dog died here, the third since we left Cape Town. It is said that these animals, when brought from England, seldom survive long in Africa. On the 24th we arrived at Graham's Town, where I bought a stock of paper, and two days after, reached the Fish River, which we crossed without difficulty, though we had heard alarming reports ofits swollen state from persons who were perhaps anxious to keep us as long as possible in their vicinity, hoping to obtain a share of our tobacco, coffee, &c. From this time to the 6th of December, we pursued our journey with little adventure, the track crossing and re- crossing the Fish River several times, till the rains, which fell heavily at night, had increased that stream so much that we found it impassible, and we halted at a place called Cradock, and took the opportunity of having some repairs done to our waggons. We saw and shot several spring boks, black grous, quaggas, and many kinds of birds, the skins of all which gave us much occupation in preparing during the intervals of halting. Thus we went on till the 16th of De- cember, when we reached the boundary of the Cape Colony. At a farm-house lives a Smith, who undertook to repair our waggons, but failed to do so, because he had neither iron nor coals! Stanley cranes, ibis calva, and spring boks, were seen

in great numbers on the plains hereabouts.. On the 19th we

. eame to Orange River, which is traversed on a very con-

. &job occupying two pie deg? which our diet was seris +

. venient raft; but first the waggon requires to be put in order, -

16 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. -

varied by a quantity of fish we caught in the Orange River We crossed the stream on the 22nd. "The days were warm and fair, but heavy thunder-storms and rain prevailed a night. We [halted for a day on a high hill called Wolve Kop. A sheep which we had purchased was so carelessl put on the waggon that we lost it, so the people went out to hunt the rhu boks on the hill, and one was caught by Hottentot. Hyænas are numerous here.

On Christmas Day we reached the banks of the Rive Caledon, and found it impassable. Rain continued and detained us till the 28th of January, though we made many ineffectual attempts to get across. Several other waggon were waiting on both sides. We spent the time, when th weather allowed, in shooting and skinning birds and animals and collecting insects. "The young rhu bok, which had been taken on Wolves Kop, died here. From the time of its capture, the ‘creature had been ill on alternate days. One day it would drink milk and walk about, the next day th poor thing had no use of its limbs and appeared almost life- less.

We were kept in constant uncertainty as to the period of our detention by the state of the river, which rose and fell accordingly to the weather, varying every few hours. The Boers who collected in great numbers, sent fora boat from Orange River and an active scene commenced, all hands busy in taking waggons to pieces and packing them in the boat. Eleven waggons, including ours, were sent across in three days, the current running so strong that many articles were inevitably lost. Our largest water-cask, though firml secured, as we thought, was swept away and we never reco- vered it. The last day of January was occupied in putting our waggons together again and reloading them, and we also exchanged some of out barter goods for sheep and cows; th latter being essential to supply with milk the young anime we may catch. We had reason to rejoice at getting over th river when we did, a violent thunder-storm and heavy rair

i $ *

|

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 17

coming on soon after, which would have rendered the passage impracticable. From hence we pursued our journey to a missionary station, called Thaba Uncha ; the way was tedious, from the wet state of the country, and we repeatedly halted to rest the oxen. Great numbers of bless boks and black gnoos were observed; and our waggon was visited by people of the Barolong and Mantatie tribes, who all begged tobacco. It was the 16th of January when we reached Thaba Uncha. Mr. Gidde, the missionary, kindly promised to ask the chief, Moroco, to allow two of his people to accompany me, that they might take care of the oxen and sheep; and accordingly, I visited the hut of this potentate, to give him a present and request this favour. Our communi- cation, which was very amicable, was held through the medium of a Hottentot, who had been educated by the missionaries near Cape Town. Some tea, tobacco and an English clay-pipe, quite won the heart of Moroco, who is chief of the Barolongs, and whose village contains 8000 inha- bitants. The people possess great numbers of cattle, and raise much Indian corn and Kafir corn. They gave us a deal of trouble during the time that we were detained by bad weather at Thaba Uncha, tormenting us for presents, attempting to steal our sheep, some of which they succeeded in driving away at night, and setting their dogs on the quest for our provisions. The chief, Moroco, gave a long address to the men whom we engaged to accompany us, recommending obedience and diligence in our service; he much urged us to bind ourselves to return the same way, that we might - bring his people back, and on Mr. Gidde’s explaining that - this might be impracticable, he stated that we must then write to him by the hands of the men, and say if we were satisfied with their conduct, else he should consider them as - deserters. He added that the Barolongs never will remain

with the Boers, but always run away from them; but that b

the English are his particular allies. Another prese tobacco then ratified the treaty, and we perd friends on the 19th. mer P after, `

VOL. V. a

18 BOTANICAL INFORMATION.

crossed the Fat River, where we stopped to get a waggon wheel mended, and to purchase horses from an emigrant farmer, named Hans Petersen, the first person of this class whom we have seen since we left the Caledon River, two months ago. The Fat River abounds with fish. Here we had a troublesome visit from a party of armed Boers, who came to the waggons, styling themselves military men. One, who claimed to be a cornet, insisted on knowing why we carried so much powder, and even wanted to take it from us, on pretence that we meant to sell it to the native tribes. After much blustering and abuse, during which he threatened to throw our waggons and all the goods into the river, the truth appeared ; this cornet only hoped to extract a present from us, and finding it could not be got by rough words, he became very friendly and invited us to visit his house and see his wife. An epidemic disease having carried off several horses, and rendered the others weak and useless, Mr. Zeyher left me to look at some, which Hans Petersen had to sell at a considerable distance, the place was called Doorn Kop. I remained near the banks of the Fat River till his return, and owing probably to the damp situation and stormy weather, I fell ill; but recovered gradually, and when Mr. Zeyher came back and reported that there was plenty of grass and many animals at Doorne Kop, which also seems a healthy spot, I thought it advisable to remove thither for a few weeks. The journey took a week. On the way, our best horse died suddenly of the prevalent malady; he had been feeding as usual, and was dead in a quarter of an hour. This disease causes great mortality in the neighbourhood, and I shall not replace the animal till it is absolutely neces- sary. Gnus, spring boks, and herds of the animal, called Burchell’s quagga, were seen on the way to Doorne Kop ; also a fine old lion, at whom I longed to have a shot, but he warily kept out of reach. One of our sheep actually lost its tail, which a jackal gnawed off the living animal. The farther we went, the more numerous became the tracks of animals, especially lions, black boks and hyenas. We halted

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. I9

on a small hill near Doorne Kop, where we had plenty of wood and water and abundance of hares and guinea-fowls. Itis useless